The book is intended to include three
major sections, those being Eliciting Stimuli, Assessment Approaches,
and Methods in Assessing the Physiological Underpinnings of Emotion.
Each section, with proposed chapters, is outlined below.
Chapter 1. Introductory chapter by James
Coan and John Allen
SECTION I: EMOTION ELICITATION
Chapter 2. Emotion Elicitation using
This chapter asks the questions, what
clips have been used? How have they been evaluated and/or
standardized? Where are they available? How are they optimally
implemented as emotional stimuli? This chapter discusses standard
methods of using film clips as emotional stimuli, and where such
standard methods do not exist, provides recommendations for the proper
implementation of such methods. If possible from a copyright
standpoint, clips will be included on a DVD disk.
Basic Question: How does one select,
evaluate and implement film clips as tools in emotion elicitation?
Confirmed authors: Jonathan
Rottenberg, Rebecca Ray, and James Gross
Chapter 3. The International Affective
Picture System and the International Affective Digitized Sounds.
This would be an original chapter
explaining the development, current psychometrics, and standard
implementation of the IAPS images.This chapter should also include a
secondary discussion of the IADS that covers much of the same ground.
The IADS qualifies as secondary due to the limited amount of information
regarding it relative to the IAPS.
Basic Question: What are the IAPS and
IADS, and how does one properly use them in emotion research?
Confirmed Authors: Margaret Bradley and
Chapter 4. The Directed Facial Action
Research has shown that voluntary facial
movements cross-culturally associated with certain basic or modal
emotions can serve as sufficient conditions for generated emotional
responses. The Directed Facial Action (DFA) technique takes advantage
of this fact for use in laboratory experiments on emotion. This chapter
describes the DFA Technique in enough detail to allow researchers to use
it in their own work.
Basic Question: What is the Directed
Facial Action technique and how is it properly implemented?
Confirmed Author: Paul Ekman
Chapter 5. Emotional Behavior As
Numerous studies support the notion that
emotional behavior can serve as a sufficient condition for emotion
elicitation. Such emotional behavior includes, but is not limited to,
remembering emotional events, imagining emotional situations,
voluntarily performing emotional facial expressions, and enacting
emotional body postures. This chapter describes common methods for
eliciting emotion using emotional behavior, and provides methodological
recommendations for the most effective implementation of such methods.
Basic Question: What are the most
common procedures for using emotional behaviors to elicit emotional
experiences, and how are these procedures most effectively implemented?
Confirmed author: James Laird and
Chapter 6. Masked Emotional Stimuli.
An increasingly important question in the
evocation of emotions and/or emotion-related states is the function of
emotional stimuli that are not consciously perceived. This kind of
research presents unique methodological challenges. The purpose of this
chapter would be to outline those challenges, and provide specific
recommendations for overcoming them. If possible, sets of widely used
masked stimuli and the programs for presenting them will be included on
Basic Question: When would one wish
to use masked stimuli, how does one properly mask emotional stimuli,
such that emotional reactions may be obtained outside of emotional
awareness, and how does one assess the success of the masking?
Confirmed author: Arne Öhman & Stefan
Chapter 7. Social Psychological
Strategies for Emotion Induction
Social Psychology has provided us with a
host of creative strategies for inducing emotion. These strategies are
particularly useful for emotions that are difficult to elicit in the
laboratory (such as anger), emotions that are contextually complex
(e.g., embarrassment) or for research programs that emphasize the
“mundane realism” of experimentally elicited emotions. This chapter
introduces the reader to social psychological principles underlying such
strategies, and makes recommendations for their use and implementation.
Relevant verbatim instructions will be included on the DVD.
Basic Question: What types of social
psychologically based emotional stimulus procedures exist and how would
one properly implement each of them?
Confirmed author: Eddie Harmon-Jones
Chapter 8. Emotion Elicitation Using
Dyadic Interaction Tasks
Dyadic interaction tasks have long been recognized as being powerful
methods of eliciting ecologically valid emotional responses. Such tasks
have involved conflict discussions among romantic couples, parent-child
interactions, peer interactions and so forth. The proper implementation
of dyadic interaction tasks involves a host of methodological
considerations, such as, but not limited to, ways to minimize threats to
internal validity, ways to ensure emotionally salient interaction within
dyads, and optimal methods for collecting data during such tasks (video
monitoring, psychophysiological recording, etc.). This chapter reviews
the specific methods involved in dyadic interaction tasks, and makes
recommendations for researchers regarding their proper implementation.
Basic Question: What are the specific
methodological issues surrounding the use of dyadic interaction tasks in
the elicitation of emotion, and how are such tasks properly implemented?
Confirmed authors: Nicole Roberts, Jeanne Tsai, and James Coan
Chapter 9. Music as a Means of
An interesting and under-explored method
of emotion elicitation regards the use of affectively charged music.
Because of its ubiquity in the daily lives of people the world over,
such an elicitation procedure may increase the mundane realism of a mood
or emotion induction supplementary to, or independent of, other
elicitation approaches. In this chapter, a complete description of the
Continuous Music Technique for emotion and mood elicitation is provided,
along with a brief history of the uses of this technique. If possible,
sets of previously used audio clips will be included as MP3 files on the
Basic Question: What is the
Continuous Music Technique, and how is it properly implemented?
Confirmed author: Joycelin Ng & Eric Eich
Chapter 10. The Use of Primary
Reinforcers and Punishers in Emotion Induction
Primary reinforcers and punishers require
no learning in order to stimulate emotional responses both positive and
negative. They constitute stimuli that animals—including humans—find
instinctively and intrinsically reinforcing or punishing due to their
links to survival. A partial list of primary reinforces and punishers
likely includes both positive and negative odors and flavors, sounds and
images, extreme temperatures, perceived access to oxygen, the loudness
of a noise, and even—though not strictly primary—money. This chapter
discusses primary reinforcers and punishers in the context of emotion
research to date. It proceeds to outline how these sorts of reinforcers
and punishers are utilized and properly understood within the broad
context of emotion induction.
Basic Question: What are the primary
reinforcers and punishers related to emotion and how are they properly
used in emotion induction?
Confirmed author: Edmund Rolls
SECTION II: EMOTION ASSESSMENT
Chapter 11. Assessing Positive and
Negative Affect via Self Report
Various approaches exist for assessing
positive and negative affect, including the Positive and Negative Affect
Schedule. Psychometric data and a brief review of the history and
implementation of the various scales will be provided. PDF versions of
each of the scales will be included on the DVD.
Basic Question: What are the pragmatic
and psychometric considerations in assessing positive and negative
affect, and what scales are suited for evaluating emotional experience?
Confirmed Authors: Elizabeth Gray and
Chapter 12. The Self-Assessment Manikin
A full description of the Self-Assessment
Manikin (SAM) Scales, including psychometric data and a brief review of
the history and implementation of the scales will be provided. , A PDF
reproduction of the valence and arousal scales, as well as the
interactive computer version of the SAM will be included on the DVD-ROM.
Basic Question: What are the
different forms of the SAM scales, and how are they properly used?
Confirmed Author: Ed Cook
Information Processing Approaches to Emotion Research
Various procedures have been proposed as
means to tap aspects of information processing and cognition in
emotional contexts. Such measures include, among others, the emotional
Stroop task, probe reaction time measures, implicit association tasks,
and affective priming. This chapter reviews these measures, and
provides detailed instructions for implementing them.
Basic Question: What information
processing methods have been used in the service of emotion research,
and how are they properly implemented?
Colin MacLeod, Elizabeth M. Rutherford, & Lynlee W. Campbell
Chapter 14. The Facial Action Coding
he Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is described in sufficient detail
that emotion researchers can understand the basis of the FACS, the
numerical listing of the discrete facial movements identified by the
system, the evaluative psychometrics of the system, and the recommended
training requirements, as well as detailed information on how to acquire
the FACS manual and complete the FACS certification process. If
possible, a sample of the classic Ekman FACS faces should be available
on the companion DVD-ROM.
Basic Question: What is coded using
the FACS, how does one become a competent FACS coder, and what are the
practical issues surrounding FACS coding (e.g., equipment, coding
Confirmed Author: Jeffrey Cohn
Measuring Emotion-Related Vocal Acoustics
There are many qualities of vocal expression that indicate emotional
states in concert with, and independently of, verbal content, facial
expression, and other manifestations of emotion. The coding of vocal
acoustics presents special methodological challenges. This chapter
outlines methods for devising experimental protocols that are amenable
to coding vocal acoustics, and details approaches for implementing such
Basic Question: How are vocal
acoustics studied and assessed in the context of emotion research?
Confirmed Author: Michael J. Owren and
Chapter 16. The Specific Affect Coding
The Specific Affect (SPAFF) Coding System
was developed as a quick and efficient means of classifying observed
emotional behavior based on facial expression, voice tone and pitch and
verbal content. Originally designed to code marital interaction, the
SPAFF has continuously evolved and since its original development has
been applied to analyses of psychotherapist/client interactions, sibling
interactions, parent/child interactions and other emotion communication
situations. This chapter outlines the specifics of the system and
offers recommendations for its implementation, including training and
minimum requisite equipment.
Basic Question: What is coded using
the SPAFF, how does one become a competent SPAFF coder, and what are the
practical issues surrounding SPAFF coding (e.g., equipment, coding
Confirmed Authors: James Coan and John
Chapter 17. Studying the Time Course of
Affective Episodes Using the Affect Rating Dial
An increasingly important question in
emotion research regards the time course of emotional experiences, both
normatively and ideographically. One promising approach has been the
use of the Affect Rating Dial. This chapter outlines the construction
and use of this device and outlines methods for its use.
Basic Question: What is the Affect
Rating Dial, how is it properly implemented, and what kind of data
analytic approaches most appropriately evaluate the data it generates?
Confirmed Author: Anna Ruef
Chapter 18. Interview Methods in Emotion
Extant emotional interviews and
“experience sampling” techniques are reviewed. Methodological pitfalls
of this sort of assessment are discussed. Guidelines for implementing
emotional interviews are presented.
Basic Question: What are the best
ways to interview an individual about his or her emotional experiences?
Confirmed Author: Nancy Stein
Chapter 19. Studying Emotion in Real
World Contexts with the Time Sampling Diary.
An important area of emotion research
regards the investigation of emotional reactions to daily events in
people’s natural environments, such as stressful working conditions,
difficult family situations, economic downturns, etc. The study of
emotional reactions to real world and unplanned events presents a host
of methodological considerations, many of which are addressed in Time
Sampling Diary (TSD) approaches to emotion assessment. The TSD is
reviewed, and recommendations are made for its use, as well as for the
investigation of emotion in field settings.
Basic Question: What is the Time
Sampling Diary, how is it properlyutilized, and what kinds of broader
methodological issues merit consideration when an ecological approach to
the study of emotion is employed?
Confirmed author: Hermann Brandstätter
Chapter 20. Methodological
Considerations in the Study of Cultural Differences in Emotion
Much has been debated in the literature
regarding the degree to which the experience and expression of emotion
is similar or different as a function of culture. The degree to which
culture exerts a causal influence on emotional experience and expression
can be difficult to determine. In this chapter, methodological
approaches and recommendations are made for the study of cultural
differences in emotion research.
Basic Question: What kinds of
methodological considerations should individuals who wish to conduct
cross-cultural research on emotion be aware of?
Confirmed Author: David Matsumoto
and Seung Hee Yoo
Chapter 21. Assessing Emotion in Infants and
The study of emotion in infants and
children presents a host of methodological challenges, ranging from
pragmatic considerations such as parental permissions to theoretical and
ethical issues related to emotion elicitation. This chapter outlines
these and other issues related to the study of emotion in infants and
Basic Question: What special issues
arise in conducting emotion research with infants and children, and how
best are these addressed?
Confirmed author: Nathan Fox and
Chapter 22. Conceptual, Theoretical and
Methodological Issues in Inferring Subjective Emotional Experience:
Recommendations for Researchers.
Among the most difficult problems in
emotion research is the measurement of subjective emotional experience.
Though many measures assume that experience reports represent actual
experience, a host of theoretical and, by extension, methodological
issues warrant consideration by researchers interested in subjective
emotional experience. This chapter reviews these issues and makes
recommendations for identifying the conditions under which inferring
subjective emotional experience from subjective emotional experience
reports may or may not be justified.
Basic Question: What are the
methodological constraints in inferring veridical emotional experience
from subjective reports, and how can these constraints be overcome or
Confirmed Author: Alfred Kaszniak
and Lis Nielsen
SECTION III: METHODS IN ASSESSING THE
PHYSIOLOGICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF EMOTION
The following chapters are not intended
to be comprehensive reviews of these approaches to the study of
emotion. Rather, they are a pragmatic set of chapters detailing the
training, expertise, equipment, funding, etc. that are required, at
minimum, to use these methods. These chapters should be considered
heuristic guides for researchers contemplating work in each area.
Chapter 23. Studying Emotion in
Animals: Methods, Materials and Training
This chapter outlines the many practical
and pragmatic issues in studying emotion in animals, such as proper
training and expertise, storage facilities, basic equipment, animal
welfare, etc. Methodological considerations specific to the study of
laboratory animals are discussed. This chapter is intended for
researchers who wish to explore the study of animals in emotion
research. It will provide a necessary overview for individuals in the
planning stages of such research.
Basic Question: What kinds of
facilities and practical considerations are necessary, at minimum, to
conduct competent animal research in emotion?
Confirmed author: Katalin M. Gothard
and Nathan J. Emery
Chapter 24. The Psychophysiological
This chapter provides an outline for the
fundamental requirements underlying psychophysiological research in
terms of training, equipment and (very basic) procedures. It is
intended to serve as an introduction to the psychophysiological
laboratory for researchers who are considering psychophysiological
Basic question: What kinds of
training, expertise, and facilities are required, and what are the
practical considerations in conducting sound psychophysiological
Confirmed author: John Allen
Chapter 25. Strategies for Studying the
Effects of Brain Damage on Emotion
An extremely fruitful area in the study
of emotion and the brain has been the study of brain lesions. This work
presents some specific guidelines for this kind of research, in terms of
required expertise, methodological considerations and data analytic
Basic Question: What are the most
important training, practical and methodological considerations facing
emotion researchers who wish to study brain damaged patients?
Confirmed author: Ralph Adolphs
Chapter 26. Brain Imaging in the Study
of Emotion: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations.
Brain imaging is gaining momentum as one
of the most important methods in emotion research. At the same time,
perhaps no other method entails as many detailed methodological
considerations and training requirements. This chapter introduces
researchers to basic competence requirements, as well as methodological
and practical issues surrounding imaging research in emotion.
Basic Question: What kinds of
training, facilities and practical considerations are necessary, at
minimum, to conduct sound neuroimaging research?
Confirmed Author: Richard Davidson
Chapter 27. Biological Substrates of
Emotion: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations
Naïve researchers investigating the
psychobiology of emotion frequently make the error of assuming that the
identification of a physiological or neuropsychological correlate of
emotion is tantamount to identifying a physiological or
neuropsychological substrate of emotion. This common mistake derives
from a misunderstanding of physiological and neuropsychological
processes as well as the inferential weight frequently given to
“biological” measures in the study of psychological constructs. This
chapter offers a methodologically oriented discussion of the distinction
between a correlate and a substrate and discusses the importance of
maintaining this distinction in making inferences about the biological
underpinnings of emotions and emotion-related constructs.
Basic Question: How are biological
correlates of emotion different from biological substrates, and why is
the distinction important?
Confirmed Authors: John Allen and John
Chapter 28. The Royal Road to Emotion:
Pitfalls and Potholes
Confirmed Author: Bob Levenson
Chapter 29. Making the Most of Modern
This chapter closes the book with a
general discussion of areas in need of the development, including
innovative methodological approaches as well as increasingly flexible
data analytic approaches capable of handling the kinds of data that
newer methods may generate. This will be especially true as measures
are developed that assess how emotional processes unfold over time.
Recommendations are made for future directions in emotion measurement
Basic Question: What was it hoped
that this book would accomplish, and what are the important
methodological considerations facing emotion researchers in the future
of emotion research?
Confirmed Authors: James Coan and John